Python for scientific computing: a personal list of “warts”¶
While I don’t hide the fact that I love Python for scientific computing work, obviously no tool is perfect. I happen to think that Python is, today, the best compromise we have available that combines the following features:
- Open source, cross-platform and functional on a wide number of platforms, including supercomputers and other HPC environments.
- A high-level, very expressive language with readable syntax, a clean object model and useful built-in data types (strings, lists, dictionaries, sets, ...).
- A rich general-purpose library with support for common non-numerical tasks: networking, regular expressions and other text processing, database access, process management, operating system level tasks (file and directory manipulations), etc.
- A sophisticated array object for manipulating homogeneous collections of numerical data in a Fortran-like manner.
- A well-defined foreign function interface, and machinery to easily call existing codes in C, C++ and Fortran.
- A good body of bindings to common tools needed in scientific work: 2d and 3d plotting, numerical libraries, etc.
- Support for interactive work, including execution, visualization and debugging.
- Tools for documentation of code and automatic testing.
On any one of the above it’s probably easy to find a better tool than Python, but on the combination, I don’t think that today we have any better option. Perhaps in 10 years things will be different.
In the meantime, I’ll focus on making Python as good of a tool as possible for my own research, and one important aspect of working with a tool you’ve become used to, is not forgetting about its problems and limitations. We often get so accustomed to the little (or big) problems in the tools we use that we simply integrate workarounds into our mental workflows, and stop being critical. This is the start of the fossilization of a project, and I hope that doesn’t happen to us on the scientific python front. So I’m trying to ask myself often about what significant problems we still have in using Python efficiently every day for scientific work, and occasionally third-parties also ask me this.
After a recent such discussion took place over email, I decided to make this little page to track this question. This is meant to serve both as a reminder to myself of these problems, and hopefully also as a list of ideas for new contributors to jump in and help in areas that genuinely require improvement. Please email me with corrections, ideas for working on any of this, or your own favorite problem.
Off the top of my head, here are a few of Python’s “warts” for scientific work. Some of these are fixable, others are hurdles that only impact the beginning user who comes from Matlab or IDL.
I should add that almost all of these are points that I often mention as advantages of Python (e.g. incremental optimization). The solution to the apparent contradiction is that I think we can still do much, much better, and the fact that Python in some of these issues is better than everything else that exists (not in all) should be no excuse to avoid improving things.
- Linear algebra syntax
- For purely linear-algebra based problems, matlab’s syntax can be cleaner than numpy’s (multiplication, operator, array creation, etc).
- Numpy ndarray is a complex object
- Numpy’s core object is the n-dimensional array, which is far more powerful than matlab’s arrays, but can be more complex to master.
- More complex core types in the language
- Being a general language, it has multiple container types (sets, tuples, lists, n-dimensional arrays). This flexibility can be daunting for the beginner and intermediate user who sometimes misuses them, though it is a huge benefit for more advanced algorithmic development.
- Lack of native rationals
- I really wish Python had native rationals and that integer division
produced rational results as needed. Python’s native numerical types are
pretty good for a general purpose language, as it includes out of the box
arbitrary-length integers, floats, complex numbers (over the ‘field’ of
the floats) and even arbitrary-precision decimals. But the integers
divide into the floats (they used to do integer truncating division, a la
C). Since this is part of the very core of the language, no amount of GMP
wrappers will make it easier (this is why Sage has to preparse its input
and convert input like
Integer(1)+Integer(2), so that all integer operations are done in a proper manner without burdening the user with that syntax all the time).
- Array multiplication operator
- I also wish that PEP 225 or something like it were accepted, so that we could have at least a second multiplication operator to express constructs like matrix or vector products in addition to element-wise operations. See this page for background on this matter.
- Packaging and distribution is a mess
- The machinery for distributing python packages is brittle, buggy and generally a major pain to use and extend. There is currently (summer 2009) active work to address this; the core ideas are listed in Python’s PEP 376 and Tarek Ziadé (the person leading much of this effort) recently put up a post on his blog about it all.
- Automatic testing
- The automated testing systems for python are currently a bit fragmented. Python ships with two (unittest and doctest) but these lack critical functionality and ease of use, which has led to third-party systems like nose, which isn’t well integrated in the core. It would be great to see a merge of the good ideas of nose into the core in a robust and stable way. Note: progress is being made on this front for Python 2.7/3.2.
- Growing pains with Python 3
- The transition to Python 3 will cause some pain for a while, as the new version is not backwards compatible.
- Integrated help and docs
- There is no single-point-of-entry set of tools with unified documentation and help system for Python. The remarkable Sage project does offer something like this and is an extremely valuable piece of this puzzle (I use it myself). Sage is a viable solution to this problem, though it actually goes beyond the pure python language by extending its syntax and modifying Python’s core numerical type hierarchy. But in pure python, there is nothing that currently integrates execution, development, debugging and documentation with the polish of Mathematica or Matlab.
- The infamous GIL
- The main python implementation in C has a global lock (the GIL, short for Global Interpreter Lock) that prevents multithreaded code from modifying python data structures. So while python does support threads, they can only be used effectively for i/o bound tasks, not for cpu-bound ones. Google’s Unladen Swallow project aims to correct this, but we’ll have to wait a few more months to see if it succeeds. In the meantime, all parallel python code must use multiple processes, which can be a pain for certain valid use cases.
- Very easy incremental optimization
- There is currently no seamless way to get fast execution for numerical code that manually loops over arrays and does indexing operations on individual elements. In recent years, Matlab has developed JIT technology to support this, and currently no seamless equivalent exists for Python. Cython helps quite a bit on this front, but it’s not yet 100% integrated into the system machinery (though rapid progress is being made).
- Better docstrings in the standard library
- For those of us who regularly work interactively, good docstrings make an enormous difference in the usability of a library. It is thus unfortunate that the quality of the docstrings in Python’s standard library is so inconsistent (from very good to non-existent). Furthermore, I think we would all really benefit from having a standard for docstring formatting that included field descriptions for parametrs, return values, etc. In that view, I think the numpy docstring standard is in fact a very good starting point, as it does a good job of balancing readability in plain-text (important if you read the docstrings in source form) and expressiveness for postprocessing into HTML or PDF via sphinx.